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POLIO – Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

POLIO – Here are the types, causes, symptoms, treatment and preventive measures in battling against this paralytic disease called polio.

POLIO
Image from: PBS

Definition

Also known as poliomyelitis, or generally infantile paralysis, it’s a type of infectious disease which causes muscle weakness, rendering the infected unable to move. It occurs from a few hours to a few days. It usually affects the legs and less on the head, neck, and diapragm (below the lungs).

Cause

This disease is caused by a poliovirus, which is a member virus of Enterovirus C in the Picornaviridae family. The virus. The virus can be transmitted through a fecal-oral (where unsanitized materials went inside the mouth) and the oral-oral routes.

Types

  • Paralytic – General type where the spine, bulbar and bulbospinal is affected.
  • Spinal – only the spine is affected
  • Bulbar – affects the bulbar region of the brain stem.
  • Bulbospinal – affects the upper part of the spine and the diaphragm.

Diagnosis

  • Stool Test
  • Via swab from the pharynx
  • Oligonucleotide mapping (genetic fingerprinting)
  • Lumbar puncture (Spinal tap)
  • PCR amplification

Prevention and Treatment

  • Passive Immunization
  • Vaccine (OPV in the Philippines where the infant takes three doses of OPV)
  • No treatment as of the moment

READ ALSO – ALLERGIES – Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment & Prevention

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