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Here are the symptoms, causes, risk factors, and ways to prevent kidney stones

KIDNEY STONES – This condition is one of the most common kidney problems and here are its symptoms, causes, risk factors, and ways to prevent it.

kidney stones
Photo courtesy of Hopkins Medicine

The main function of the kidneys is to remove the fluid from the blood and waste and then make it urine. The wastes can build-up and stick together in your kidneys if there is too much of it and you don’t have enough fluid in your blood. These will form clumps which are called kidney stones, based on the article from American Kidney Fund.


  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Pain on urination
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts


  • You don’t drink enough water.
  • Diet with high in protein, sodium and/or sugar.
  • Certain medicines, such as diuretics (water pills) or calcium-based antacids.


  • You have had kidney stones before.
  • Someone in your family has had kidney stones.
  • Overweight or obese
  • If you have gastric bypass surgery or another intestinal surgery, polycystic kidney disease or another cystic kidney disease that causes swelling or irritation in your bowel or your joints.
  • Certain condition that causes your urine to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium


  • Drink enough fluids every day (8 to 12 glasses)
  • Limit eating foods with sodium and animal protein such as meat and eggs
  • Consult your doctor for certain medications that would not lead to kidney stones
  • Before stopping or undergoing treatment, be sure to ask the advice of your doctor

READ ALSO: Left Side Abdominal Pain: What Could Be The Problem?

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